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Research Papers

Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell and Oxygen Reduction Studies With Carbon-Supported Platinum Alloy Catalysts in Phosphoric Acid Based Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Mamlouk1

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials,  University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK e-mail: mohamed.mamlouk@ncl.ac.uk

Jong Hyun Jang

Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791, Republic of Korea

Keith Scott

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials,  University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne,NE1 7RU, UK

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 9(1), 011002 (Dec 15, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004461 History: Received August 13, 2009; Revised April 12, 2011; Published December 15, 2011; Online December 15, 2011

The oxygen reduction activities of platinum and platinum alloy catalysts were evaluated at temperatures up to 150  °C in phosphoric acid solution. The oxygen reduction currents and open circuit potentials were measured using chronoamperometry with double potential steps to eliminate the effects of double layer charging currents and metal deactivationcould be eliminated effectively. Based on the mass activity at 0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl, the commercial PtNi catalyst showed higher performances than commercial Pt catalyst at 150 °C. The commercial PtCo catalyst showed high activities at 90 °C and 120 °C. Intermediate temperature fuel cells based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes were tested with the alloy cathode catalysts. In the case of Pt–Fe alloy an enhanced performance was achieved in comparison to that with Pt carbon catalysts.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Schemetic of the polybenzimidazole synthesis reaction used

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Figure 2

(a) LSV profiles of a platinum RDE tip in 85% phosphoric acid solution at 90°C. At 2500 rpm, the electrode potential was cathodically swept at 10 mV/s after the Pt electrode was stabilized at open circuit potential, 0.8 V, (solid line) or at 0 V (dashed line). (b) CV curves of commercial platinum catalyst in 85% phosphoric acid solution at 90°C. The scan rate was 10 mV/s and the electrode rotation speed was 900, 2500, and 4900 rpm.

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Figure 3

(a) The applied potential profiles with double potential steps for chronoamperometry measurements, and (b) typical current responses, which were measured with commercial PtCo catalysts at 150°C. The experimental current data after 10 s were fitted with an exponential decay function to obtain oxygen reduction currents at each potential.

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Figure 4

Comparison between CV profiles at a scan rate of 10 mV/s (solid line) and 1 mV/s (dashed line), and an I–V plot by chronoamperometry technique (open circles). Data were collected with commercial PtCo catalysts in 85% phosphoric acid solution at 90°C. The electrode rotation speed was fixed at 2500 rpm.

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Figure 5

XRD spectra of commercial Pt and Pt alloy catalysts

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Figure 6

The I–V plots for commercial PtNi catalysts at 90°C, 120°C, and 150°C

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Figure 7

The I–V plots by chronoamperometry for Pt alloy catalysts

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Figure 8

(a) Mass activities at 0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl and (b) open circuit potentials of commercial Pt and Pt alloy catalysts, as a function of cell temperature

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Figure 9

(a) Levich plot of oxygen reduction currents of commercial PtNi catalysts in the range of 1600–4900 rpm, and (b) the kinetic currents of commercial Pt and PtNi catalysts at 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl

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Figure 10

Tafel plots for Pt–Ni alloy catalysts

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Figure 11

Exchange current densities and Tafel slopes for Pt alloy catalysts

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Figure 12

Fuel cell performance under various oxygen concentrations at 150°C of MEAs using 30%Pt–Fe/C and 30% Pt/C cathode electrodes utilizing 0.4 mgPt cm− 2 with 40 wt.% PTFE

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Figure 13

Fuel cell performance of MEAs using Pt/Ni, Pt/Co and Pt/C cathode electrodes utilizing 0.4 mgPt cm− 2 with 40 wt.% PTFE. Air at 150°C.

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